CO2 emissions have stopped growing – thanks to renewable energy, some say, but according to David Hone, Chief Climate Change Advisor of Shell, there are other factors at play as well, such as coal-to-gas substitution and limited demand growth.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) recently reported that carbon dioxide emissions from energy use remained flat in 2016, the third year in a row. This is a noticeable departure from the 21st century trend which has seen global carbon dioxide emissions rise by some 40% in just 14 years. The Guardian reported this story and added the by-line “International Energy Agency report puts halt in emissions from energy down to growth in renewable power”. But the story within the energy system has more facets than this (Data sourced from the BP Statistical Review of World Energy).
Although global growth hasn’t been outstanding in recent years, it has nevertheless chugged along at around 2.5-3%. Energy use has also increased, albeit at a lower rate of some 1% per annum. This is at the lower end of the expected range of energy vs. GDP, but it is probably too early to say that this represents a longer term shift in this relationship. However, this could be the case if efficiency improvements can outpace economic development or at least come close.
Renewable energy is growing rapidly, although this is mainly in the area of electricity generation. From 2014 to 2015 solar and wind generation increased globally by about 200 TWh, which was nearly equal to the overall growth in electricity generation for that year. As an aside, BP reported that the overall electricity growth rate in 2015 was down on 2014 (2.4%) and remained well below the 10-year trend (2.8%). This is slightly concerning as electrification of the energy system is a key requirement for long term emissions reduction. Electricity generation needs to be accelerating compared to overall energy demand growth.
Coal use continues to increase sharply in a number of developing countries such as Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, India, Colombia and Indonesia
Although the 2016 data isn’t available yet, BP reported that coal use declined globally in 2015 vs. 2014 by 1.8% and natural gas use increased. While most of this could be attributed to the USA and Canada, China also saw a notable coal decline along with growth in natural gas use. The global coal use reduction is equivalent to nearly 300 million tonnes CO2, or about 0.8% of global emissions. Any replacement with natural gas would result in about half the emissions. This is very noticeable in the USA where coal use fell in 2015 by 13%, natural gas use grew by 3% (but against a larger absolute use), oil demand increased by 3%, but emissions declined by 2.6%.
Coal use is declining for a number of reasons:
- The surge in natural gas production in the USA in particular, triggering the closure of older coal fired power stations that cannot meet new environmental regulations.
- Air quality concerns in China, leading to a shutdown of coal fired industry and power generation around the major cities.
- Some mothballing or closure of overcapacity in metallurgical industries in China.
- The impact of a modest carbon price in a number of jurisdictions and some government imposed moratoriums on new coal generation construction (e.g. Canada).
However, coal use continues to increase sharply in a number of developing countries such as Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, India, Colombia and Indonesia. Current expectations are that this will continue.
Oil use continues to increase, with BP reporting a global rise from 2014 to 2015 of 2%.
The final story is therefore one of several parts and it would appear that this trend has continued into 2016 although further data will be required for verification;
- Global growth is modest, but energy use increases are trending at the lower part of the expected rise for this level of economic growth.
- Coal use is declining, with natural gas filling much of the gap but at lower emissions.
- Renewables are growing quickly, covering most of the increase in electricity generation, but not quite all.
- Oil demand continues to increase, with its growing emissions being offset by the reduction in coal use.
The end result is that flattening in global emissions that has been seen for three years now.
David Hone is Chief Climate Change Advisor for Royal Dutch Shell. He combines his work with his responsibilities as a board member of the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) and Centre for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES).