Finding new ways for batteries to increase the charge they can store will lift their energy density. Researchers at Stanford University have developed an alkali metal-chlorine battery that stores six times the charge of today’s commercially available lithium-ion batteries. Until this breakthrough, a high-performance rechargeable sodium-chlorine or lithium-chlorine battery has been impractical because chlorine is too reactive to convert back to an electron-bearing chloride with high efficiency. Here, nanochemistry is used to capture chlorine molecules in advanced porous carbon material, where they can more easily be charged up. Development is still in the early stages, and for now the target is small consumer electronics. But, as the researchers explain, success with larger batteries hold the prospect of a giant leap in the range of EVs before they need a re-charge.
An international team of researchers led by Stanford University has developed rechargeable batteries that can store up to six times more charge than ones that are currently commercially available.
The advance, detailed in a new paper published Aug. 25 in the journal Nature, could accelerate the use of rechargeable batteries and puts battery researchers one step closer toward achieving two top stated goals of their field: creating a high-performance rechargeable battery that could enable cellphones to be charged only once a week instead of daily and electric vehicles that can travel six times farther without a recharge.
Alkali metal-chlorine batteries
The new so-called alkali metal-chlorine batteries, developed by a team of researchers led by Stanford chemistry Professor Hongjie Dai and doctoral candidate Guanzhou Zhu, relies on the back-and-forth chemical conversion of sodium chloride (Na/Cl2) or lithium chloride (Li/Cl2) to chlorine.
When electrons travel from one side of a rechargeable battery to the other, recharging reverts the chemistry back to its original state to await another use. Non-rechargeable batteries have no such luck. Once drained, their chemistry cannot be restored.
“A rechargeable battery is a bit like a rocking chair. It tips in one direction, but then rocks back when you add electricity,” Dai explained. “What we have here is a high-rocking rocking chair.”
The reason no one had yet created a high-performance rechargeable sodium-chlorine or lithium-chlorine battery is that chlorine is too reactive and challenging to convert back to a chloride with high efficiency. In the few cases where others were able to achieve a certain degree of rechargeability, the battery performance proved poor.
In fact, Dai and Zhu did not set out to create a rechargeable sodium and lithium-chlorine battery at all, but merely to improve their existing battery technologies using thionyl chloride. This chemical is one of the main ingredients of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, which are a popular type of single-use battery first invented in the 1970s.
But in one of their early experiments involving chlorine and sodium chloride, the Stanford researchers noticed that the conversion of one chemical to another had somehow stabilised, resulting in some rechargeability. “I didn’t think it was possible,” Dai said. “It took us about at least a year to really realise what was going on.”
Over the next several years, the team elucidated the reversible chemistries and sought ways to make it more efficient by experimenting with many different materials for the battery’s positive electrode. The big breakthrough came when they formed the electrode using an advanced porous carbon material from collaborators Professor Yuan-Yao Li and his student Hung-Chun Tai from the National Chung Cheng University of Taiwan. The carbon material has a nanosphere structure filled with many ultra-tiny pores. In practice, these hollow spheres act like a sponge, sopping up copious amounts of otherwise touchy chlorine molecules and storing them for later conversion to salt inside the micropores.
“The chlorine molecule is being trapped and protected in the tiny pores of the carbon nanospheres when the battery is charged,” Zhu explained. “Then, when the battery needs to be drained or discharged, we can discharge the battery and convert chlorine to make NaCl – table salt – and repeat this process over many cycles. We can cycle up to 200 times currently and there’s still room for improvement.”
Six times higher energy density
The result is a step toward the brass ring of battery design – high energy density. The researchers have so far achieved 1,200 milliamp hours per gram of positive electrode material, while the capacity of commercial lithium-ion battery today is up to 200 milliamp hours per gram. “Ours has at least six times higher capacity,” Zhu said.
The researchers envision their batteries one day being used in situations where frequent recharging is not practical or desirable, such as in satellites or remote sensors. Many otherwise usable satellites are now floating in orbit, obsolete due to their dead batteries. Future satellites equipped with long-lived rechargeable batteries could be fitted with solar chargers, extending their usefulness many times over.
For now though, the working prototype they’ve developed might still be suitable for use in small everyday electronics like hearing aids or remote controls. For consumer electronics or electrical vehicles, much more work remains to engineer the battery structure, increase the energy density, scale up the batteries and increase the number of cycles.
Hongjie Dai is the J. G. Jackson and C. J. Wood Professor in Chemistry in the School of Humanities and Sciences. Additional researchers at Stanford are Xin Tian, Jiachen Li, Hao Sun, Peng Liang, Michael Angell and Yongtao Meng. Additional co-authors are from National Chung Cheng University, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, National Central University, National Taiwan University of Science & Technology – all in Taiwan; as well as Shandong University of Science & Technology in China. This research was supported by Stanford’s Bits & Watts Initiative and employed tools at the Stanford Nano Shared Facilities, which is supported by the National Science Foundation.
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